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History of Goa

Goa was part of Mauryan Empire in the 3rd century. Later Goa was ruled by the Satavahanas of Kolhapur. Then from them it was passed to the Chalukyas of Badami. They ruled Goa between 580 to 750. For the next few centuries Goa was successively ruled by the Silharas, Kadambas, Chalukyans. It was the Kadambas that laid an indelible mark on the course of Goa`s pre-colonial history and culture. Goa came under the governance of the Sultanate of Delhi in 1312 and in 1370 they had to surrender it to Harihara I of Vijayanagara. They ruled the territory until 1469. after which was ruled by by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After which the territory passed on to the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur who made Goa their auxiliary capital. In 1498, Vasco da Gama was the first European to set foot in India through a sea route, landing in Calicut followed by his arrival at Goa. At that time Goa the largest trading centre on India`s western coast.

The Portuguese arrived at Goa with the target of setting up a colony and claiming control of the spice trade from the European powers after the traditional land routes to India were closed by the Ottoman Turks. In 1510, the Portugese admiral, Afonso de Albuquerque defeated the Bijapur kings with the aid of Timayya and thus established a permanent settlement in Goa. With the Imposition of Inquisition in 1560-1812, the natives were forcibly converted to Christianity by threat. As a result thousand fled fromm the state and settled down in the towns of Mangalore and Karwar in Karnataka and Savantwadi in Maharashtra. In the 16th century, with the arrival of other European powers in India, most of the Portuguese possessions were surrounded by the British and Dutch. In 1787, Conspiracy of the Pintos or te Conspiracy of Goa took place. This is also known as the Pinto Revolt or the Pinto Conspiracy. It was a rebellion against Portuguese rule in Goa. The plotters wanted to depose the Portuguese and the leaders of the plot were three prominent priests of Goa belonging to the Pinto family. This was the first ethnic rebellion against Portuguese rule in Goa. Goa became their possession and was granted the same civic privileges as Lisbon. The Portugese encouraged its citizens to marry women of Goa and to settle there. Their progeny was called as mestiço. Local population was against this union. In 1843 the capital was moved to Panjim from Velha( old)Goa. By mid-18th century the area had expanded widely. In 1947,after India gained Independence, Portugal refused to accede to India`s demand to relinquish their control. On 12 December 1961 the Indian army with 40,000 troops moved in as part of Operation Vijay. The fighting lasted for 26 hours and finally the Portuguese garrison surrendered. Goa along with Daman and Diu was made into a centrally administered Union Territory. On the 19th of December, India took over Goa. This day was also knmown as the Liberation Day. At first India`s action was not recognised and the UN Security Council considered a resolution condemning the invasion. After the Carnation Revolution in 1974, India`s action was recognized by Portugal and other nations. On May 30, 1987 , Goa was declared as India`s twenty-fifth state.

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