India become a Republic by adopting a constitution on 26 Jan 1950. The constitution offers 6 fundamental rights to all citizens viz., right to equality, right to freedom of speech and expression, right against exploitation, right to freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion, right of any section of citizens to preserve their culture
and right to constitutional remedies.
National flag : The National flag is a horizontal tricolour deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. In the centre of the white band is a wheel with 24 spokes in navy blue - it's design is that of a wheel which appears on the abacus of Sarnath lion stupa of Emperor Ashoka. The design of the National flag was adopted by the constituent Assembly of India on 22 July, 1947. Its use to display is regulated by the Indian flag code.
National Anthem : The song Jana-Gana-Mana, composed in Bengali by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the national anthem of India on 24 Jan 1950. It was first sung on 27 Dec 1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem.
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mage,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!
Playing time of the full version of the national anthem is approximately 52 seconds. A short version consisting of first and last lines of the stanza (playing time approximately 20 seconds) is also played on certain occasions.
The following is a translation of Rabindranath Tagore's rendering of the stanza:
"Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
dispenser of India's destiny.
The name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha,
of the Dravid and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganga
and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The salvation of all people is in thy hand,
thou dispenser of India's destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee."
Official Name : Bharat or India
National language : Hindi
National Song : The song Vande Mataram, composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with National Anthem. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
National bird : The Indian peacock, the national bird, is a colourful swan-sized bird, with a fan shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eyes and a long, slender neck. It is fully protected under the Indian Wildlife protection Act 1972. Peacocks perform spectacular dance when rain clouds appear.
National Animal : The magnificent tiger has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. Tigers are endangered species and numbering only 3500 in India.
National flower : Lotus
National calendar : Saka era with Chaitra as its first month.